Criminology And Criminology Justice
Course Number: CRCJ1001A
Required readings:Understanding Crime in Canada
Administrative affairs: go over some logistics, like textbooks, grading, and office hours, etc.
Discuss structure of course by class and go over the syllabus(讲义的提纲，摘要)
Introduction to criminology and some of what we will look at over the term
# Core(核心) objective for the courseKnowledge of the historical evolution of criminological thought;关于犯罪学思想的进化（改进）过程Understanding of organizations and mechanisms of the criminal justice system in Canada;对于加拿大刑事犯罪（司法系统）机制和组织的理解Comfort with the various theories, frameworks, schools, paradigms, etc. for understanding crime and society;对于犯罪形式各异的思想，价值观，流派，模式，社会结构的理解Understanding of criminalization processes;对于刑事定罪的理解Knowledge of themes related to the penal regime;掌握刑罚制度的核心理念Comfort discussing a number of contemporary criminological issues; andAbility to critically analyze issues of crime and society from an academically-informed position.能够对于当代的犯罪案件进行探讨，并且可以从学术角度进行对于犯罪本身和社会影响的分析。
#What is criminology? (powerpoints add some textbook content)
Consider what criminology is not: CSI.(Crime Scene Investigation 犯罪现场调查) No crime fighting. No forensic analysis.（法医分析） Not really about solving crime.（解决实际案件）Criminology: largely a social science; Best definition: the study（n. 研究） of crime and society.No agreement on what constitutes（构成） crime;Agreement on the three domains(领域) or three Cs of criminal justice = courts, cops, corrections.
ØCriminology as an emerging（新兴的） field: The discipline（学科） of criminology relatively recentØØSystematic study of crime did not begin until the 19th century (i.e., during the late 1800s)ØØThe discipline of criminology did not become established in Canada until the mid-20th centuryEveryday holds major developments for field of criminology
Media & Popular culture play important roles
Criminal justice system driven by practitioners
All this makes criminology an important field of study, and shows us why we are in a great time to be criminologists
The emergence of criminology in the Postwar Era(战后时代):The social backdrop社会背景
ØSettler colonial context （“殖民”背景下）(双重含义：从发展中国家而来的移民劳动力以及从乡村区域迁移到城市区域的人)
ØUrbanization（城市化） and industrialization（高度工业化） were key features of social life in Canada, the United kingdom, and the United States during the late 19th and the early 20th centuries. Substantial migration （财富转移）took place from rural areas to urban areas, and the new categories of crime arose, often related to the behaviours of the urban poor: i.e. the proscriptions were enacted against vagrancy, drunkenness,and prostitution. （New laws emerged to deal with “problem” behaviours of the urban poor - laws against sex work, drunkenness, being homeless）
ØEarly 20th century saw beginnings of globalization, with large movement of people seen as a form of cheap labour.They represented an economic threat to the established labour force & brought long-standing parts of their cultures with them to the new world.Opium from hina, hashish from india, and coca and cocaine from south america. New laws also emerged to deal with cultural conflict between white settlers and racialized migrants — laws against opium smoking, hashish, cocaine.
Textbook: (part of chapter 1)
From the 1960s to the present,criminology programs emerged within departments of sociology at many universities, focused on understanding crimes as a form of deviance and then studying the processes of defining criminal law, the social precursors to involvement in crime, and the potential range of appropriate and/or effective response to lawbreakers.
Definition of Deviance:Behaviour that differs from accepted social norms; may include acts that violate specific rules(crime), sexual behaviours, or non-criminal acts that challenge accepted values.
Criminology Definition:The study of crime and criminal behaviour, which are defined by reference to criminal law.